50 kHz FM Optical Receiver

Frequency modulation (FM) can be used to transmit analog voltage level signal with good noise immunity. The transmission itself¬† might employs different methods, and this circuit uses free air optical medium. This optical receiver circuit is built using a L14G2 detector, two stages of gain, and a FM demodulator. To obtain better sensitivity, we can use more stages of stabilized […]

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LM331 Frequency to Voltage Converter

The frequency to voltage converter circuit illustrated in the schematic diagram below produces a 10 V output for 10 kHz full scale input (square waves or pulses).¬† The simplicity of the circuit doesn’t mean a bad performance: this circuit has linearity about 0.06% at full scale. For your note, there is a trade-off between ripple versus response time. With Cfilter […]

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XR2211 Linear FM Detector

This is a linear FM detector circuit. This circuit usually is used in telemetry applications and wide range of analog communications. The main part of this circuit is a XR-2211. This circuit has an external buffer/amplifier that is needed due to the high-impedance output at pin 11 of XR-2211. This circuit also has a post-detection filter Rf/Cf. This circuit produce […]

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