Single Supply Summing Amplifier for Audio Mixer

The basis of an audio mixer is an inverting summing circuit below. For real audio mixers, a single-supply voltage is seldom used. To increase dynamic range, the designer will often push an op amp up to, and sometimes beyond it’s recommended voltage rails. Noninverting summing circuits are not recommended, but it’s possible to use. The source impedance becomes one of […]

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Op-Amp Application: Level Shifting Amplifier

Sometimes, in linear equipment design, it’s necessary to take a voltage which is referred to some dc level and generate an amplified output which is referred to ground. Using a differential amplifier similar to that shown in the circuit diagram below (the upper one) is the most straight-forward way of doing this. However, this circuit has a disadvantage, that is […]

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Op-Amp Application: Unity Gain Buffer

This circuit is an Unity Gain Buffer. This circuit has a highest input impedance of any OP-AMP circuit. This circuit has a less gain error that is equal to common mode rejection or the reciprocal of the amplifier open-loop gain. The multiplication of the open-loop gain and the differential input impedance parallel with common mode input impedance will result the […]

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