Precision Current Loop Thermocouple Transmitter

Current loop analog data transmission is used in industrial environment because of its robustness (good noise immunity), while providing wiring fault detection (short and broken wiring) with a simple mechanism by detecting out range current level. In 4-20mA current loop standard, the valid signal should be in the range of 4 to 20mA. Zero ampere current would indicate broken wiring, […]

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Voltage To Frequency Converter

Using this circuit, we can accept positive or negative or differential control voltages. When the control voltage is zero, the output frequency is zero. To charge the timing capacitor C1 linearly, the 741 op amp forms a current source controlled by the voltage EC. The capacitor charges and discharges between 1/3 Vcc and 2/3 Vcc because NE555 is connected in […]

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Variable Voltage Source is Adjustable Down to Zero!

Variable adjustable voltage source is very important in electronic testing and experiment, no matter whether it’s just for hobby, professional research, or exploring new electronic circuit design. A very low voltage source sometimes is needed, and the following schematic diagram show such circuit,  a 0-5V adjustable voltage source with very good stability: [National Semiconductor Application Note]

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